So this question came up at a party (Sara's friend from a few posts back), and I didn't have any good idea. The problem is that most designers don't really do much with theory, and of those that do, few are doing anything particularly interesting these days.
I study at the meta-theory level, so I suppose I should find some meta-theorist with whom to work. Problem is, there's only a couple contemporary meta-theorists I can think of; Venturi (Complexity and Contradiction) and Alexander (Pattern Language). Alexander's work is nice, but it effectively covers only the "Treasure Chests" part of my work, without touching the "Toolboxes" part... it's the Toolboxes that make it all work.
I'm sure there must be others, but I haven't heard of them (or have forgotten them). Have to give it more thought and do some research as well.